Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1860 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Industry Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Our endeavour must be to meet the twin imperatives of technological relevance and cost effective delivery. Given the expansion of our private sector, both in technical and financial terms, we are at the threshold of a future in which the private sector contributes to the national cause of high technology defence. There is need for a new institutional framework to involve the private sector, to ensure continuous dialogue as well as to provide incentives for risk taking. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "PRIVATISATION OF DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL BASE IN INDIA" essay for you Create order We should encourage substantial investment in production capabilities and also in defence related RDs.Ã  Manmohan Singh, PM of India Introduction 50. The history of involvement of private industry in defence production in India goes back to 1991Ã Ã which was followed by government initiatives in 1998 to establish close interaction of MoD and services with the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII). The constitution of Group of MinistersÃ Ã committee tasked to examine the Kargil debacle, the policy reforms implemented by the government since 2001Ã Ã and the constitution of Kelkar committee in 2004Ã Ã , were primarily aimed at overhauling the acquisition process and promoting indigenous development to achieve 70% defence requirements from indigenous sources by 2010. The major fall out of these was the Defence Procurement Procedures, DPP 2002, DPP 2004, DPP 2006 and DPP 2008Ã Ã . 51. The dramatic differences between technologies used in commercial and military systems in the past have narrowed down with the changing pace of the scientific innovation in the commercial sector especially in the fields of nano-technology, robotics, computer simulation, and stealth technology. As a result, military organizations in developed countries have turned to commercial sector for dual-use technologies and new breakthrough scientific discoveries especially with the decline in the defence spending in post Cold-War era for reasons economic as well as political. Emerging Private Sector 52. In the last two decades, the Private Sector has expanded immenselyÃ Ã with the DPSUs outsourcing more than 30% and OFs outsourcing 80%. The private sector can produce much more efficiently in a much less time frame and hence their role in Indian defence industry cannot be underestimated despite their constraints. Various private sector companies have ventured into the defence sector and have been issued license by the government. These companies have already taken up production of defence equipment by entering into joint venture (JV) with many foreign companies. Some of these areÃ Ã :- Mahindra Mahindra Ltd, New Delhi. Larsen Toubro Ltd, Mumbai. Max Aerospace Aviation Ltd, Mumbai. HBL Power Systems Ltd, Hyderabad. Ramoss India, New Delhi. Tata Motors Ltd, Mumbai. Alpha Phazotron Radar Equipment Systems Pvt Ltd, Bangalore 53. EADSs helicopter subsidiary Eurocopter is associated with HAL since 1962, manufacturing more than 600 Alouette 3 and Lama (known as Cheetah and Chetak locally) helicopters. EADS has plans to set up pilot training facilities in India for the civil and military segments and plans to invest ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¡ÃâÃ ¬7-8 billion ($9.5-11 billion) over the next 10 years. 54. In Nov 2009, Mahindra Group created Mahindra Defence Systems in IndiaÃ Ã which is a JV with BAE Systems. Mahindra Group has simultaneously acquired majority stakes in two Australian defence companies, Aerostaff Australia and Gippsland Aeronautics, signalling its entry into the defence and aerospace business. Tata has entered into JV with AgustaWestland to assemble the AW119 in India. 55. Honeywell AerospaceÃ Ã , which provides integrated avionics, engines, systems and service products for the aerospace industry, is one example. The US Company has a design and development centre in India that it hopes to expand in the coming years. Airbus has set up the Airbus Engineering Centre India in Bangalore wher e local engineers help develop capabilities in modelling and simulation, covering areas such as flight management systems and aerodynamics, to help in the design and production of aircraft such as the A380 and the A350. It is also working with Indian IT firms such as CADES, HCL, Infosys, Quest and Satyam to offer support across various aircraft programmes. 56. India has an inherent edge over several other nations because of higher skills and lower costs of production. This makes India an ideal contender for joint ventures. HAL has entered into joint ventures with many overseas aviation system companies to undertake design and development of new systems in India. Some of these are the BaeHAL, HAL Edgewood, HELBIT etc. Many other software and hardware giants involved in the aviation hardware and software development especially in the embedded and real time system domain have also established their facilities in Bangalore. Some of these are GE Intelligent Systems, Honeywell, etc. 57. Given their rapid growth over the last decade, it is perhaps no surprise that Indian software companies such as HCL, Infosys, Infotech, Tata Consultancy Services and Wipro have been active in the aerospace industry for several years. Increasingly, they are benefiting from the engineering services outsourcing programmes. This will help India evolve from IT and low-end business process outsourcing work to high-end design services. Overseas companies view the Indian companies as long-term partners and not as mere suppliers/vendorsÃ Ã . Initiatives 58. The initiatives undertaken by government towards promoting involvement of private sector industries towards high end defence requirements are:- Opening up of defence sector (in 2001) for 100% participation by Indian private sector and upto 26% FDI. Provision of the offset clause in DPP for any procurement from a foreign vendor beyond 300 crores. Introduction of a procurement clause Buy and Make (Indian).This clause is expected to create a positive impact on the private sector industry and could encourage formation of joint ventures or alliances for co-production with Indian companies. Issue of RFP to Indian private sector and the companies having a greater say in negotiations, in obtaining technology from foreign Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) as well as in co-production. Sharing of information on long term perspective plan with the Indian industry and the involvement of the domestic industry in acquisition planning. Funding RD cost to the extent of 80 per cent by the Government. Non starters 59. Inspite of the various measures taken, there has been no remarkable change in the current state of indigenisation. Only a few of Indias top private sector companies are involved in certain small value defence contracts. It needs to be realised that the goal of self reliance would remain a pipe dream if it is to be achieved by just banking on public sector alone. 60. The involvement of private sector is mandatory to harness the best technology available and reduce imports. Considering the measures taken over the last two decades, India presently is far from achieving the indigenous figure of 70%. Equipment worth $50 billion has been bought from foreign suppliers in the last decade with the expenditure likely to touch $100 billion in the coming decade. The reasons to these are:- A number of defence-industry seminars, conferences and exhibitions have been held in the recent years but old mindsets, complex procurement procedures and clout wielded by the public sector have bee n acting as major deterrents to any meaningful participation of the private sector. Inspite of policy reforms of 2001, at the Defence-Expo 2010 the foreign defence majors were still lined up to display their wares. Hence, the efficacy of the initiatives of 26% FDI needs to be given a relook. While we trust foreign suppliers (essentially because there are few alternatives) governed as they are by their respective national laws that have in-built sanction mechanisms to restrict supplies in various situations, we have not extended the same trust quotient to Indian Industry. As on date the private sector is at a distinct disadvantage as against OFs and DPSUs. The OFs and DPSUs have a non-competitive edge, because of its close proximity to the MoD. In all deals under TOT, default agency that receives the benefit is always a DPSU, even if a private sector company is better placed in terms of know-how to absorb the technology and the available infrastructure. The private sec tor is also inhibited by technical limitations primarily due to its late entry into the defence industry and needs to institutionalise joint ventures with established foreign defence majors. However, the FDI cap of 26% is an impediment. Way Ahead 61. The role of the Department of Defence Production thus needs to be drastically retooled to evaluate Indias requirements not in a public sector context but a larger India paradigm. Essentially the initiatives needed are:- De-licensing. The licensing system needs to be given a relook or done away with for manufacturing of defence equipment by private companies except for very critical products. Foreign Direct Investment. FDI limits should be enhanced to 49% for all defence production with sensitive content and in non-sensitive areas raised to 76 or even 100 per cent. This would obviate the need for government to defray 80 per cent of the RD costs. Private Equity Participation Government must seriously consider private equity participation in the defence-related public sector to unlock their potential and maximise returns on sovereign investment over the decades Developmental Partners. During development phase suitable industrial entities needs to be identified to parti cipate in the activity as developmental partners. Limited Series Production (LSP). After joint development, the industry partners needs to be co-opted for execution of LSP that can meet the service requirement. Bulk Production Bulk of production needs to be outsourced to private players in a phased manner over several years. This could ease the problem of available OFs and DPSUs while at the same time utilise the resources available in these public establishments. Spin-offs The spin-offs from the defence technology need to be exploited in the commercial domain by effecting required repackaging/modification. Marketing. Scope also exists for industry to seek potential market for these products in India/Abroad with due approvals. Also the collaboration of private companies needs to be exploited for marketing of the products. Tax benefits. The government needs to provide a level playing field to private industry in terms of excise and custom exemptions for imports of cert ain components to be utilised in defence equipment. Promoting Interactions. DRDO has been actively promoting private industries participation in its entire gamut of activities by regularly interacting with the interested players as well as with organizations such as CII, FICCI, ASOCHAM. DRDO has organized several DRDO-Industry meets to appraise industry veterans about opportunities awaiting them in Defence RD. This would defineitely help in exploiting the available expertise in industry. Sponsored Research. Government needs to look into orient the fresh brains in the IITs, NITs and other educational institutions in India towards RD of the projects in hand as well as perspective projects. This can be taken up through Sponsored Research as well as industrial consultancy. Public Private Partnership. There is a need to promote public private partnership as the public sector has excellent infrastructure, manufacturing facilities and a highly experienced task force. It will be a waste of national resources if these assets are duplicated by the private sector. The private sector, on the other hand, can bring in latest technology, managerial practices, marketing skills and financial management. Therefore, a well-blended fusion of both will result in synergising of their strengths through economies of scale and prove mutually beneficial. Joint Ventures. The Brahmos project, which is the governmental level collaboration between the GOI (Bharat) and Russia (Moscow), is one good example of implementing organisational level change. The same needs to be followed up in other projects in pipeline. NOTES AND REFERENCES
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Global warming is an issue that threatens the world, but is often overlooked. This problem is an increase in the earths temperature due to fossil fuels, industries, agricultural, and man-made causes. This results in the release of greenhouse gases. As climate changes occur in our earths atmosphere buildup of greenhouse gases. There are many problems that are causing global warming, and if they are not taken serious or at least prevented there are going to be some severe issues in the near future. Global warming has been caused by the people of the world. Pollution is one of the biggest problems caused by people. No one seems to realize is that by burning fossil fuels is one thing that causes pollution. Fossil fuels are fuelsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Our modern car burning gasoline is responsible for about 33% of the emission in the U.S. With our population growing at a rapid rate, the demand for more cars and consumer goods means that we are increasing the use of fossil f uels for transportation and manufacturing. A recent poll of twenty people, shows that 86% of the people think that it is a serious problem, 4% think it is not an issue, but could not give a valid answer, 10% are undecided. Some people that dont believe in global warming say that theres no scientific proof that the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s temperature is rising. Those who thought it is a major issue all had ideas on to if not stop global warming at least slow down the process. Natural gas is an extremely important source of energy for reducing pollution and maintaining a clean and healthy environment. As the cleanest of the fossil fuels, natural gas can be used in many ways to help reduce the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere. Burning natural gas in the place of other fossil fuels emits fewer harmful pollutants into the atmosphere, and an increased reliance on natural gas can potentially reduce the emission of many of these most harmful pollutants. The use of natural gas to power both industrial boilers and processes and the generation of electricity can significantly improve the emissions. Hybrid cars have been out on the market for a couple of years now. They use a small gasoline engine and high powered electric motor to drive the car.Show MoreRelatedThe Causes Of Global Warming Essay1705 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Global warming has been for decades the center of discussion between intergovernmental agencies and world leaders, each forum aiming to discuss the causes of the global warming. Scientists have been in the front lie to figure out the causes of the global warming. The hurdles and the efforts to discern the causes of the global warming are to learn ways to counter the causes so as to prevent the earth from vanquishing in the detrimental effects of the global warming. Additionally, the effort to learnRead MoreThe Cause For Global Warming1279 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages2015 The Cause for Global Warming Global warming refers to the drastic change in climate. But who are the ones that cause global warming? Is it the people of earth or is it just the natural change in climate as the world ages? People claim that itÃ¢â¬â¢s just a natural change in climate, that the people have only a little influence on the climate. Others say that we the people are the cause for the dramatic change in climate with the greenhouse gases we emit into the atmosphere. Global warming is indeedRead MoreThe Causes for Global Warming1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof global climate over long periods of time. Climate model projections made by the US Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) show that, recently, global temperature has increased. This increase in temperature is referred to as global warming. One of the main causes of global warming is greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases are gases in the atmosphere that absorb solar radiation to keep the planet warm. These gases have increased, so more solar r adiation is trapped inside raising global temperaturesRead MoreCauses of Global Warming816 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesatmosphere. This causes the air on Earth to contain higher kinetic energy due to the fact that more gas particles from the natural gases are colliding with the air particles. The higher kinetic energy results in higher temperature and heating of EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface. The heating of the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface causes many of the world problems that we have today. As more and more factories and industries produce gases that pollute the world, they also increase the effects of global warming. Gas particles fromRead MoreCauses of Global Warming525 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesHave you ever thought of what is the cause to global warming? Some people still happen to believe that global warming is a made up story, which is preventing humans from advancing. While others might believe that global warming is realistic and is a man made problem. Global warming is sooner or later going t o impact you in a major way that can even change your life style. We the people need to understand that global warming can result in harmful consequences to the earth that one cannot even imagineRead MoreGlobal Warming and Its Causes1894 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdestroyed property of unknown value in the New Orleans region. This is a scenario that we could experience in the near future should we continue to ignore calls to address global warming issues. Should such a scenario be replicated on a global scale, the consequences would be devastating. Global Warming: An Overview Global warming according to Farrar and Mastrandrea can simply be defined as a continuing increase in Earths overall temperature (7). This increase in temperature has over time beenRead MoreThe Causes of Global Warming2456 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages Global Warming Global warming is a phrase that has been used in recent history that describes EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface temperature being warmed. Throughout history, there has been three global warmingÃ¢â¬â¢s. They occurred in 1850; from about 1860-1880, 1915-1945, and 1975-1978 (see graph). The current warming was thought to have been generated by the discharge by man of carbon dioxide. All three of these periods of warming were divided into a period of universal cooling. The warming/cooling cycles, and theirRead MoreGlobal Warming : Causes And Effects905 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesindependent variables that are contributing to the cause of a problem the world is currently faced with, global warming. What is global warming? Well, global warming is a rise in the Earth s average atmospheric temperature that causes corresponding changes in climate and that may result from the greenhouse effect (which I will talk more about.) Which is when our ozone layer has a hole which gradually increases, and increases heat from the sun. This causes major problems such as the polar caps meltingRead MoreGlobal Warming : Causes And Mitigation1319 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Global Warming: Cause and Mitigation Global Warming: Cause and Mitigation Introduction The topic of global warming has received a lot of attention for the past couple of decades. The massive impacts and risks posed by this phenomenon on humans and environment have been severe, thus calling for swift attention. Basically, globalization refers to the rise of average temperature of oceans and earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere. Global warming is a reality which has faced the human society for over aRead MoreHumans Cause Global Warming1142 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGlobal Warming Debate Today we are debating the important topic of global warming. As the affirmative team, we strongly believe that global warming is caused by the actions of humans. But this is not just a belief, this is a fact. Global warming, by definition, is a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth s atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants. The greenhouse effect is the trapping of the
Critical Evaluation Of Financial Statements Accounting Essay Fiscal statements contain fiscal information about a concern organisation that should be just and accurate. They should state determination shapers about the company s fiscal personal businesss. In peculiar, fiscal statements are of import for investors and creditors in their efforts to measure future hard currency flows from the company to them. However, as Elliott and Elliott, 2008 province, there has been an increasing concern about the impact of traveling monetary value degrees on net income and capital measuring. Therefore, Historical Cost Accounting ( HCA ) is the worst possible accounting convention, until one considers the options ( p.86 ) . Hence, there are alternate accounting attacks that have been proposed to integrate these motions into the fiscal studies. Notwithstanding, these attacks are still undergoing development and have non achieved general support among practicians in the accounting field. You are required to discourse and notice on the above statement with mention to academic books, documents, and other published beginnings that you have read. See all the following in your response: Outline1 Critically evaluate fiscal statements in footings of its importance, dependability and relevance to the cardinal users.2 Response:3 Question 2: Review the defects of HCA theoretical account when monetary values are lifting and explicate why fiscal studies under the HCA are capable to some major restrictions ( e.g. stock list is undervalued, the depreciation charge to the income statement is unostentatious, balance sheet values are understated, and periodic comparings are invalidated ) .4 Response:5 Question 3: Why has the HCA theoretical account survived in malice of its restrictions in times of rising prices?6 Response:7 Response:8 Response: Critically evaluate fiscal statements in footings of its importance, dependability and relevance to the cardinal users. Response: As stated by Atrill A ; McLaney, the fiscal statements aim is to supply a snapshot of the fiscal place and public presentation of a concern ( Atrill A ; McLaney, 2008 ) . The Financial Accounts of a company describe the public presentation of the company in fiscal footings. They are drumhead of the extended activities of a concern designed to supply true and accurate images to stakeholders ( Woelfel, 1994 ) . In today s universe, the fiscal histories of a company will be of involvement to broad assortment of users called stakeholders ( DL MBA Material, 2003 ) . As discussed in DL MBA stuff, some of stakeholder of a company can be proprietors, loaners, investing analysts, directors, employees, clients, providers, rivals and authorities bureaus. The following briefly discuss features of fiscal studies which would be interested to each party ( DL MBA Material, 2003 ) . Owners The stockholders of company s are ultimate proprietors. The stockholders invest their money into company A ; hence they are concern with profitableness, dividend and future chances of the company. Their chief concern is dependability of information available to them to make up ones mind their future outlooks or class of actions ( DL MBA Material, 2003 ) . Lenders They are the fiscal establishments who lend money to a company for its regular operation or concern enlargements. They perform elaborate analysis of company histories and do determination to impart money. It helps them to understand the fiscal purchase of the company by analyzing the different purchase ratios like debt-to-equity ratio etc. They determine the fixed assets of the company in order to cover up any contingency. They decide the repayment ability of companies towards adoptions ( DL MBA Material, 2003 ) . Investing Analyst They are risk-appetite bargainers, single investors, and fiscal establishment looking for concern chance to put money into a company. They frequently use company s history to measure the hereafter growing and profitableness of a concern. One of their chief concerns is growing potency of the company A ; their portion monetary value public presentation in stock market ( DL MBA Material, 2003 ) . Directors A companies directors purpose is to analyze the fiscal accounting and happen the way of the attempts being put to accomplish corporate aims. They normally determine the company public presentation based on thorough internal histories. Their single public presentations get judged by the bring forthing good accounting figures ( DL MBA Material, 2003 ) . The Epic of Gilgamesh Argumentative EssayAs per Johnson, the historical costs though non just but much more dependable. Hence many cases, the importance is given to tradeoff between historical costing and other advanced just value patterns in much larger position ( Johnson, 2005 ) . The foundation of HCA is a existent dealing which has happened and the money has been paid for that dealing. Hence the cost value is a existent A ; non fabricated and has its root in that dealing. It is non about ciphering slightly fanciful or conjectural cost. The chief advantage of utilizing historical cost accounting is simplicity and certainty. The other advantage is it gives directors ability to calculate future operational costs. Hence in malice, many experts argue that the equity of the method is far from existent value, it still continue to rule the accounting universe. Question 4: Discourse the characteristics of current income and value theoretical accounts ( e.g. Current Buying Power Accounting ( CPPA ) and Replacement Cost Accounting ( RCA ) theoretical accounts ) that have been suggested to replace or run in tandem with the HCA convention. Response: As per Nobes, current buying power or general buying power accounting systems are based on historical cost histories adjusted with general monetary value index Numberss ( Nobes, 1992 ) . In instance of current buying power accounting, the original buying costs are corrected by rectification factor based on some general index like retail monetary value index. The corrected purchase cost is so used to cipher the balance value of the assets in order to record in the balance sheet for that twelvemonth. Hence it represents more realistic value for non-monetary assets. Ahmed argues that the replacing cost accounting steps replacement cost in units of money. He argues that the replacing cost income is equal to the difference between realised grosss and their corresponding replacing costs in units of general buying power ( Riahi-Belkaoui, 1996 ) . As per Drummon A ; stickler, the replacing cost is the sum of hard currency or hard currency equivalent that would be needed soon to get tantamount assets which can supply same map as the original plus. The method consists of gauging the cost of a new plus as argued by Christina ( Drummon A ; stickler, 1983 ) . The of import feature of replacing cost accounting is to capture the effects of altering monetary values and ultimate altering value of the points. The cardinal characteristic of both techniques is to capture the loss or addition in the value of non-monetary points such that the effects of rising prices or deflation can be captured in the balance sheet to do it more accurate. Question 5: Critically measure the virtuousnesss and defects of these alternate theoretical accounts. Response: The chief feature of the alternate theoretical accounts like current buying power accounting or replacing cost accounting is a mechanism to capture the loss or addition in the value of non-monetary points on the current rating footing. It helps to enter assets on the balance sheet with realistic values. The balance sheet can portrait true image of fiscal place of an administration ( DL MBA Material, 2003 ) . It can suit the effects of rising prices or deflation A ; do fiscal statement more economically relevant. The chief drawback of the alternate theoretical accounts is alterations in the monetary values are captured but these are non based on existent existent dealing. These theoretical accounts are complicated and values are subjective. It may go on that the general Consumer Price index or rising prices has gone up but the impacts on assets have been rearward or non that important. In such instance, the attendant value will be erroneous. Hence they lack in dependability.
Wednesday, April 22, 2020
Introduction The examination of the functioning of the memory of an individual cannot be limited to only one memory test, and as a result, there are a variety of assessments that target the various features of the memory. Memory test procedures take into consideration various attributes including features of the test instrument such as legitimacy and consistency of results.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Memory for Designs Test specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tests should ideally sample a variety of non-related features of the memory to make sure that particular inadequacies in the memory can be identified. In addition to this, aspects of recall and recognition should be tested, as a way to monitor memory processes in relation to memory indicators (Dustman Beck, 1980). It has been observed that most of the memory encounters are incidental as opposed to premeditated. In view of this, one of the tests a dministered should be unexpected, to prevent rehearsal. Some tests are administered through visual aspects, ignoring auditory-verbal presentation modes as well as motor-retrieval response modes. To make certain that the results obtained are well- founded, the person administering the tests should sample an appropriately broad range of test behaviors. Computerized testing has a number of drawbacks including time consuming and high cost of setting up the system (Dustman Beck, 1980). Memory for designs test The Memory for designs test was designed by Graham and Kendall, in 1946. The test examines visual recall of an individual based on brain damage versus functional disorder versus normality. It is a popular test for the examination of brain damage in children and adults. The scoring system allows the accumulation of normative data (Graham Kendall, 1947). Administration of the test The test is administered by presenting a series of fifteen geometric designs of increasing difficulty o n individual cards. The cards are nine by twelve inch pieces of paper, with all designs drawn on the same piece of paper. Each design is presented to the individual alone, in a prearranged sequence. The subject is supposed to view the design for five seconds before it is removed from his view. The testÃ¢â¬â¢s duration is about five to ten minutes (Erickson Scott, 1977). Development of the test The memory test was intended to draw the line and distinguish between individuals who are organically impaired and those who are functionally impaired. The inability to reproduce geometric designs from immediate memory is related to organic impairment.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After the test was introduced, forty designs were set and administered to a few individuals who had brain damage. The final set of tests included those designs that were found to be easiest to score as well as discriminate best between groups. The test has since been used with all age groups for both clinical and research purposes (Erickson Scott, 1977). Sample According to Graham and Kendell (1960), there were a variety of samples such as the original validation group and a cross-validation group. In the original group, there were 70 brain-disorder patients with mixed diagnoses and 70 controls. They were all matched for age, education and occupational status. The original group included an equal number of males and females, as well as African Americans. The age bracket of the subjects was 9 to 69 years, with an average age of 42 years. The average educational level was eighth grade. The latter group comprised 33 brain-disordered patients and 168 control patients. There were three times as many men as women, with an average age of 28 years for the controls and 37 years for the brain-disordered subjects. Both groups had an average education of ninth grade (Peterson Mangen, 1981). Scoring, scale norms and distribution According to the criteria provided by Graham and Kendall (1960), each reproduction has a score of 0-3, whereby the highest score signifies the worst performance. There was no penalty due to incomplete or forgotten designs. This is because the variables did not distinguish brain damaged subjects from control subjects. Reliability tests According to Graham and Kendell (1960), the split half reliability was .92 for 140 brain-damaged patients. Test-retest correlations conducted in the same session or within a 24 hour period for other groups ranged between .81 and .90. The clinical usefulness of the test is based on the adequacy of its standardization for various age groups as well as a variety of non-brained-damaged, psychiatric individuals. The reliability of the scoring is suitable based on data provided in the test manual. In addition to this, new studies on the reliability have found it satisfactory. Qualitative scores are possible based on a m easure of the tendency to rotate the designs, whereby the error can be reliably calculated (Graham Kendall, 1947). The age standardization for normal adults is adequate though the normative data that is available for different functional psychiatric groups is not. It has been observed that some functional psychiatric disorders produce lower scores on the MFD test, though there are no age norms for representative populations of functional psychiatric disorders.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Memory for Designs Test specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This poses a challenge in the omission of the presence of a specific functional psychiatric disorder as a substitute explanation of a poor score based on the presently available norms, unless the alternative was eliminated on a different basis (Peterson Mangen, 1981). Validity tests An analysis of a large number of tests conducted on a sample of a hundred pe ople to diagnose brain damage showed a +.597 for the memory for designs test on the first factor. This was interpreted as perceptual organization or the ability to integrate the relevant aspects of the perceptual field. Based on the perceptual organization factor, a memory aspect was observed from the tests, proving that perceptual organization was able to facilitate performance when memory was involved (Peterson Mangen, 1981). The MFD test has been proven to always differentiate between groups of patients known without any doubt to have brain damage, as well as to match groups of normal people and psychiatric patients thought not to be brain damaged. According to the definition of brain damage, that it is any amount of cell death in the cerebral cortex irrespective of the cause, every person aged above 30 years would be brain damaged. Some forms of birth trauma, childhood injuries and anoxia cause cell death in many normal children, though the damage is insignificant since it does not result in impairment (Richie Butler, 1964). Predictive validity According to data presented in the Graham and Kendall ( 1960) test manual, a significant mean score difference between a group of brain-damaged and normal individuals, at the 0.01 level. This indicated an overlap in the scores of the non-brain-damaged and brain damaged groups that caused difficulties in coming up with a decision on the performance of borderline people. An example was the cut-off point whereby 4% of the controls were diagnosed as having brain damage. Out of these, half of the brain-damaged subjects in one group and 48% in another group were designated with brain damage. The other cut-off point made for varied combinations of correct identifications, errors and false positives (Richie Butler, 1964). Convergent validity According to Warren and Mangen, the memory for designs test correlated .85 and .81 with scores on the Bender Gestalt test.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Usability on older populations The test is timed. In addition to this, manual coordination is required. The involvement of these factors implies that the aged may be handicapped. Sensitivity to age difference According to Peterson and Mangen, there was a significant correlation between performance and age, of 0.27. This implied that an increase in age of the subject corresponded to poorer performance of the subject. There was also a correlation of -.31 of the MFD test scores with intelligence. Assessment by the vocabulary score on the Wechsler-Bellevue showed a significant multiple correlation of .44 with age and intelligence (Peterson Mangen, 1981). According to a study conducted on psychiatric patients aged above 60 years, 36 brain damaged and 36 controls, there was a considerable difference in the mean scores, which was not as high as that between, brain-damaged and standardization groups of younger ages. The mean scores were 8.44 and 13.89, while the SD was 6.33 and 5.81 for th e controls and brain-damaged group respectively. There was a big difference between this age group and all younger control groups, though the difference with the scores of adults between the ages of 20 and 60 did not vary much. The confounding factor was that the controls over 60 years had a decline in vocabulary scores that was the same as that of the brain-damaged groups, which yielded negative results for the younger ages. This signified that the use of psychiatric controls for the older age-group would be unsuitable (Dustman Beck, 1980). According to another study conducted for subjects between the age of 20 and 80, with 50 men and 40 men in each constituent decade, the performance of older age groups on the MFD was observed to be stable until the age of fifty, after which there was a fast decline and increased variability in subjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ performances (Peterson Mangen, 1981). Conclusion The testÃ¢â¬â¢s reliability and validity are good, since it discriminates in a ration al manner between groups with brain damage and normal groups. The test has limitations when conducted on aged subjects since it requires manual coordination. In addition to this, it is timed and the performance correlates with age and intelligence. Unusual scores signify damage in a specific cortical area, which in turn signifies a formerly particular dysfunction. It could be translated to mean a shortened life expectancy, though the MFD is hardly translated to imply such occurrences. Studies have shown an insignificant correlation between MFD score and a rating of severity of brain damage according to certain assessment criteria such as EFG (Peterson Mangen, 1981). Other studies have also shown a wide range of MFD scores when the test is administered to a psychiatric group whose brain damage status is uncertain, resulting in no conclusions from the features shown by the group. One practical consequence of an abnormal MFD score which has been demonstrated is that the patient is lik ely also to have abnormal scores on several other tests of brain damage such as the Bender Gestalt Test, and the Benton Visual Retention Test. An abnormal MFD score might enable the clinical psychologist to identify a previously unknown pattern of associated psychological abnormalities which might have implications for the adjustment of the patient. Another useful implication of an abnormal MFD score among children is that one might anticipate difficulties in learning to read, as suggested by several studies (Erickson Scott, 1977). References Dustman, R. E., Beck, E. C. (1980). Memory-For-Designs Test: comparison of performance of young and old adults. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 36(3), 770-774. Erickson, R. C., Scott, M. L. (1977). Clinical Memory Testing. Psychological Bulletin , 1130-1149. Graham, F., Kendall, B. (1947). Memory-For-DesignÃ¢â¬â¢s Test. Journal of Consulting Psychology , 11(6). Peterson, W. A., Mangen, D. J. (1981). Research Instruments in Social Geront ology: Clinical and Social Psychology (Clinical Social Psychology). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Richie, J., Butler, A. (1964). Performance of retardates on the memory-for-designs test. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 20(1), 108-110. This research paper on Memory for Designs Test was written and submitted by user Maximiliano Sosa to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Analytical Essay Sample on Internet Censorship Key Concerns Nowadays, Internet is commonly regarded as the most widely used source and the fastest way to exchange information and knowledge all over the world. However, the freedom and democracy on Internet, being one of its greatest beauties and drawing features, is apparently abused by the population online. Pornography and hate literature are commonly used to lure Internet surfers attention and to generate profits. Representing the rights of the public and the power of a country while owning and operating the Internet, the government has the absolute responsibility to censor the internet so as to protect its own citizens from harmful and false information, thus in order to prevent any possible decay of social and moral values, though the extent of Internet censorship should be carefully measured to ensure the freedom of speaking of people. Since the invention of ARPANET in 1962 by the Department of Defenses Advanced Research Project Agency in United States, Internet has developed tremendously during the past half century with the improvement in modern technology with government sponsoring the researching program. It had formerly been made only for military and research purposes, where in 1974, the general public gets its first vague hint of how networked computers can be used in daily life as the commercial version of the ARPANET goes online. Hence it is quite obvious that without the financial investment and political support from the government, Internet, being such a new technological invention at that time would never achieve as great a success as what it has achieved by today; it is apparently wrong to say governments did not build neither did they own the Internet. As a result, being counted as partially a property of the government, Internet should absolutely under governments control. Besides to exchange information and knowledge and to facilitate communication, the most important role of Internet is to enrich people intellectually. This requires a clean and abundant source of information on the cyberspace that is provided to the public; it should be apparently free of indecency and obscenity that may cause any social problems, which eventually attributes to the decay of moral values. Human beings live in communities where easy access to indecency stimulates many people to adopt these lower moral values, as seemingly it is quite normal and perfectly okay to do so; the idea of Everybody does so and Everybody says so exerts a detrimental influence on peopleÃ ±Ã ¿s minds and that is what people are libeled to believe when the exposure to indecency becomes so common. What draws even more concerns of ours is of the children. We all know that children can easily be scarred and manipulated by all kinds of information. Parents can have some control over which books their children read as they can easily tell what the books are about; they do not have worry that their children will turn a page and be confronted with obscenities or other forms of indecency. While with the Internet, there is a whole different scenario. Anyone can flick a page and be presented with porn, denigration, discrimination, fraud and misinformation. As parenting is not only about chaining a child to a parental censor but about creating a safe environment for children to grow up in at the same time, an uncensored Internet is apparently not a safe environment for children. Due to the above reasons, it is my opinion that the flow of information should be filtered from anything that contradicts any of the abovementioned reasonable purposes. This includes filtering indecent expressions and obscene materials from access to the Internet. As a result, only the government has the power to take such actions so as to ensure the Internet is not over polluted by indecent garbage. However, it is very difficult to take modest steps in this sensitive issue of Internet censorship. Some people may say that certain information on the net, which might be viewed as obscene or indecent, are actually useful and helpful to people who are mature enough. This includes those obtained from adult sites. Though young people are not ready to get access to such information that may lead to their moral decay, mature adults certainly do not encounter the same problem. However they may be banned from acquire what they need from the net due to the possible existence of government censorship. Moreover, as community standards vary from community to community, it is not possible to find a guideline for the decisions of what is acceptable to be made upon; neither is it easy to be implemented. Furthermore, nobody is able to take full responsibility on such issues. Some people may argue that teaching children to deal with indecencies may shield them better and prepare them for the real world. And that the rights of free speak should never be violated. Yet that does not mean that we can do nothing about the existing and possibly occurring problems on net; government censorship is still necessary at this point of time and may have to go on for a certain period of time. In order to make sure desirable results can be seen, what seems to be necessary is the corporation and communication between the government and Internet surfers. General guidelines of censorship can be discussed and decided with efforts of both parties to reach a compromise. Feedback sites and forums can be set up to serve such purposes online. Eventually, the issue of Internet censorship is always controversial as the interests and concerns of different persons can never be the same as others; it can only be eased with internet surfers carrying out their social responsibilities. I think for government to step into the problem currently and help censor the accessibility of certain websites containing things such as adult materials is a modest measurement of control over Internet.
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Characterization of Macoute in The Dew Breaker The Dew Breaker, a novel by Edwidge Danticat that tells of Jean-Claude DuvalierÃ¢â¬â¢s inherited dictatorship in Haiti, appears to be a novel about two things. On the one hand, it documents the life and trials of a Tonton Macoute, a government sanctioned torturer; on the other hand, it also tells of the cowardice of weak men with great power. The Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢ that is the eponym for the book is constantly characterized by his cowardice, his desire for forgiveness but his inability to ask for it. This conflict that the Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢ has within himself also tends to inspire conflict within the reader. Should one hate him or pity him? Is he unforgivable because of what he has done or is his own fear, coupled with circumstance, truly to blame? After examining the characterization of the Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢ and the situations in which he was placed, it can be inferred that while he may not deserve forgiveness, this manÃ¢â¬â¢s obvious pusillanimity make s him pitiable. The novel begins with the story of Ka, an aspiring young artist and the daughter of the Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢. The Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢ is presented as a simple Haitian barber, an escaped military prisoner with a devotedly Catholic wife and loving daughter. The reader easily falls into step with Ka and her father as they travel to Florida to sell one of KaÃ¢â¬â¢s sculptures. This sculpture is inspired by the bent and broken prisoner Ka believed her father to be. Besides relating parts of her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"pastÃ¢â¬ in Haiti, Ka also tells of a jagged, horrifying scar that has nearly ruined her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s face. She easily recounts the story he told her as a child: that a guard working for the regime of Jean-Claude Duvalier sliced open her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s face in a random act of cruelty. It later becomes apparent that this tale is indeed a lie told to Ka for over thirty years. Towards the middle of the chapter, KaÃ¢â¬â¢s father finally opens up with the t ruth after destroying his daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s sculpture, saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ka, your father was the hunter, he was not the preyÃ¢â¬ ¦ I was never in prisonÃ¢â¬ (21). In one instant, everything that Danticat has told the reader about KaÃ¢â¬â¢s father seems to be untrue. This man, who was known in Haiti as a Tonton Macoute, an infamous Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢, finally speaks the truth to his daughter and in the process destroys the innate trust Ka has in him. The idea that he kept such a secret from her for so long is surely an example of his infinite cowardice. However, it also proves he wants nothing more than love for the man he is, not hate for the man he had been. Another point of interest in The Dew Breaker is the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s demand that he be allowed to wear civilian clothes. In the last chapter, Ã¢â¬Å"The Dew BreakerÃ¢â¬ , the protagonist simply states that Ã¢â¬Å"he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like the uniformÃ¢â¬ (196). The idea that he feels he is above other Macoutes and has the right to make demands is perfectly absurd and also cowardly. A Macoute walking home alone in standard denim runs the risk of being attacked and possibly killed; the Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ refusal to wear the uniform proves he is a coward, a man who cannot stand the idea of imminent physical harm. This basic denial of Macoute custom sets the main character apart from all others: he is not in imminent danger because he is allowed to dress normally, he can avoid unwanted attention, and his lack of uniform saves him later when he runs into Anne outside Casernes. Had he been wearing the denim of his station, I doubt Anne would have reacted so charita bly. Incidentally, Ã¢â¬Å"The Dew BreakerÃ¢â¬ also presents the same conflict as seen in the beginning of the book. It offers no real resolution as the last chapter but it does leave the reader with a feeling of modern day catharsis. This chapter flashes back to the Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢, an active and senior member of DuvalierÃ¢â¬â¢s Macoutes while in Haiti. Danticat opens by describing the main character in a soft but insistent way. He is an important and self-indulgent man in the Tonton Macoutes who has been sent to kill an outspoken preacher. The Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢ voices a disdain of this job in the beginning of the chapter, saying that, Ã¢â¬Å"He wanted a perfect view of the church entrance in case the opportunity came to do the job from inside his carÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (183). This obvious lack of courage produces a key moment in the novel: the Macoute is afraid to take a chance with the preacherÃ¢â¬â¢s unrestrained congregation. It is doubtless that, if the Ã¢â¬Ëd ew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢ was alone during the public assassination of the preacher, the entire situation would have resulted in his own death. To protect himself, the Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢ chooses to bring along a group of other Macoutes. The preacher is roughly but quietly taken away, giving the illusion that he has Ã¢â¬Å"disappearedÃ¢â¬ like all the rest. The quiet, subtle way in which the preacher was taken to Casernes helps to exemplify the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s inflated concern for himself. He is not willing risk his life in any way, even to execute a duty given to him by the faction he so loves. The concern mentioned above is also present pages later, after the preacher has been taken to Casernes for questioning. Though it is surprising that the preacher was not restrained during interrogation, this small oversight by both the main character and Danticat serves a great purpose. In a marvelous last act of heroism, the preacher reaches for a splintered piece of wood from his broken chair and stabs Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"in [his] right cheek and [sinks] it in an inch or soÃ¢â¬ (226). Danticat goes on to further wound the Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢, saying that, Ã¢â¬Å"The fat manÃ¢â¬â¢s shock worked in [the preacherÃ¢â¬â¢s] favor, for it allowed him a few seconds to slide the piece of wood down the fat manÃ¢â¬â¢s face, tearing the skin down his jawlineÃ¢â¬ (226). The action itself earns the preacher the quick death he so desires: he is immediately shot in the chest by the Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢, a man who cannot stand the idea of bruised pride. This m agnificent show of valor on the preacherÃ¢â¬â¢s part forever damages the Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢; it also contributes greatly to a weakness in character that will be present for the rest of his life. With the blood of the preacher on his hands, the Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢ becomes completely terrified. A huge gash in his face and dripping with blood, he stumbles out of Casernes, pushing aside his superiorÃ¢â¬â¢s assurance of asylum. The fact that he did not stay to face the consequences of his actions shows his cowardice yet again. He cannot bear the thought of punishment or reprimand even from an institution he has devoted his life to. Whenever there is a chance he might endure harm, the Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢ is quick to withdraw from the situation, either by blaming it on others or by running away. The constant theme of cowardice and fear in The Dew Breaker is important to the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s plot and also to the characterizations within. The Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢ as presented by Danticat is a man who evoked terror in the people; there mere mention of his name could send a Haitian into a fit of shivers or a bout of unwanted memories. It is ironic, then, that he should ultimately be the one who is most afraid and the one who would have to flee for his life. The Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢ was such a contradictory mess of both fear and courage, weakness and power, that one could not help but feel sorry for him. It is heart wrenching to think that a human being could do such terrible things and then struggle so completely with those facts afterwards. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the story every person wants to hear: the story of a man battling his inner demons and his past to become more than he ever was before. While the Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢ does fall short of forgiveness and absolution, he also doe manage to achieve a kind of pitiable half-life, his attempt to be a good man despite his history of bad deeds. Ultimately, it is the Ã¢â¬Ëdew breakerÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ cowardice and lack of strength that makes him so close to the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s own heart. After all, we are all vulnerable in our own way.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
The Treatment of Women in Afghanistan - Research Paper Example Table of Contents Executive Summary 1 The Treatment of Women in Afghanistan Before the Taliban 3 The Treatment of Women in Afghanistan During the Taliban 4 The Treatment of Women In Afghanistan After the Taliban 5 How Afghanistan is Still Not Where It Needs to be in Respect to WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights 6 Conclusion 8 Works cited 9 The Treatment of Women in Afghanistan Before the Taliban The treatment of women in Afghanistan before the Taliban is seen to have been relatively quite fair. The Afghan womenÃ¢â¬â¢s right to freely choose their possession and work is seen to have been written into the 1980 Afghanistan constitution when Afghanistan signed both the UN Convention on the elimination of Discrimination Against Women as well as the International bill of rights for women that had been issued by the UN in 1979 (Verdirame 176). Under the convention, the right to work is considered as being an inalienable right of all human beings and when Afghanistan become a signatory nation, women in the country were seen to quickly emerge as key participants in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and held key positions as farmers, teachers, doctors, equal partners in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s civil service and engineers. In a 2001, US congress report, it was pointed out that before the Taliban; women were treated in a affair manner that saw them emerge as active leaders in both politics and public life. This is exemplified by the fact that women teachers in the country essentially represented an impressive 70% of the teachers in the country, in addition to their also accounting for an estimated 40% of the doctors as well as a vast majority of the health workersÃ¢â¬â¢. Of note also is that, over half of the university students in Afghanistan were women. In fact, in 1977 women were seen to essentially make up an estimated over 15 percent of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s highest legislative branch; a percentage that is notably higher than the 14 percent of women that served in the United States con gress as at the time when the report was being presented in 2001 (US Congress 21276). The freedom that women enjoyed before the Taliban was also seen to allow those living in cities to wear western-style clothing and makeup (Banting 23). The Treatment of Women in Afghanistan During the Taliban When the severely repressive Taliban regime first came into power, its treatment of women is seen to have been quite biased an unfair. The Taliban repressed the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s right to education by issuing an edict in 1997 that sought to try and enforce a nationwide ban on access to public education for all girls and women in the country and transformed most of girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ schools that were being run by the former state into all-male institutions (Linschoten and Kuehn 108). When determined Afghani attempted to still educating their children while complying with the law by setting up numerous private educational institutions, the Taliban responded by issuing another repressive edict that stip ulated that all private funded education in the country be limited to only those girls that happened to be under the age of eight years in addition to this education being limited to the study of the Koran only. In 1997, the Taliban issued an edict that banned all women from engaging in any work in public places (Crews and Tarzi 98). Although this edict affected all the different sectors of the economy across the country, the health sector is seen to have been most severely affected primarily as a result of the large number of